The following information is only as accurate as the last update (January 13, 2023)! However, it is a starting point.
All sources indicate that the number of disease carrying ticks in Nova Scotia and Canada continues to climb. There are many known endemic areas throughout the country but black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) can now be found just about everywhere. Therefore, everyone should be aware of what to look out for and how to remove a tick if they find one. Ticks are no longer just in the woods. They can be found in manicured parks, golf courses, backyards, etc. Please make yourself knowledgeable!
Unfortunately, the black-legged ticks are not the only ticks that we have to worry about. Basically, any tick that bites a human can potentially transmit pathogens. Several things have now been found in dog (wood) ticks and Lone Star ticks have now been found sporadically in several parts of Canada, including in Nova Scotia. Lone Star ticks can cause the dreaded meat allergy and can also transmit other things.
Remember, as well, that ticks can be active all year depending upon the weather. Although they are most active in the spring and fall, they can even be around in the winter if temperatures go above 4C (and sometimes even lower!). If the summer is hot and dry they may not be as active, but they are still there, especially on damp, cooler days.
Although freeze/thaws during the winter can kill off some ticks, a consistent snow cover is good for them. They can “hibernate” and come out hungry as soon as temperatures allow.
Also important to note is that ticks can carry other diseases along with, or instead of, Lyme disease. Other diseases can include Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Powassan Virus, Babesiosis, Ehrliciosis, Bartonella, Borrelia miyamoto, Rickettsia, and Tularemia, to name just a few. New tick-borne diseases are frequently being discovered. Prevention is key as it is very hard to determine all that a tick is carrying!
Not everyone sees an attached tick as they can be very small; attach in places not easily seen; and secrete pain killers that help them go unnoticed. Many also do not get, or see, the erythema migrans rash which is a definitive sign of Lyme. For clarification purposes, the better known bull’s eye version of the erythema migrans rash is only seen in a small percentage of cases. Other types of erythema migrans rashes are more common.
Many people can go days, weeks, months, or even years, before they consider a tick bite as being the cause of their multiple symptoms.
Last, but certainly not least, the amount of time a tick has to be attached to transmit disease is really unknown at this time. There is a research article regarding this issue – “Lyme borreliosis: a review of data on transmission time after tick attachment” – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278789/. The sooner you get an attached tick off of you the better, but make sure you do it correctly! Powassan virus can be transmitted in as little as 15 MINUTES. Daily tick checks should be routine.
Before You Go Outdoors
– Know where to expect ticks. Although they can be anywhere due to migratory birds, deer, rodents, etc., ticks tend to prefer moist and humid environments, particularly in or near wooded or grassy areas and near water. You may come into contact with ticks during outdoor activities around your home, such as around wood piles or in gardens, raking, or when walking through leaf litter or near shrubs. Always walk in the center of trails in order to avoid contact with ticks.
– Consider wearing a repellent but be aware that many repellents just keep the ticks away from the areas that are covered. Ticks may walk around until they find an area of skin without repellent. According to a June 13, 2014, Canadian Paediatric Society Document, “Icaridin is considered to be the repellent of first choice by the Public Health Agency of Canada’s Canadian Advisory Committee on Tropical Medicine and Travel for travellers six months to 12 years of age. Products containing up to 20% icaridin are considered to be safe and efficacious”. Consumer Reports had also done a review of bug repellents and recommended Sawyer Premium Insect Repellent 20% Picaridin. There is a product available in the US called Permethrin that can actually kill ticks. Products with some permethrin can be purchased in Canada. It is for use on clothing, equipment, etc., rather than on your skin. It is widely used by the US and Canadian Military on their uniforms, as well as many in the US that work or spend a lot of time outdoors. A variety of “No Fly Zone” tick and mosquito clothing is now available for adults in Canada via Mark’s. They also have a few products for dogs. There is more variety in the US, but many companies will not ship to Canada.
– There are also natural products that can be used to repel ticks. Most of the natural products require frequent reapplication. There is a product made right here in Nova Scotia, AtlanTick – https://www.canada.ca/en/atlantic-canada-opportunities/campaigns/impacts/atlantick.html. Arm yourself with information!
– If at all possible, wear light coloured clothes, with a tight weave, so that you can spot the ticks more easily. Although not fashionable, tuck your pants into your socks and shirt into your pants so you have more time to find the ticks on your clothes before they get to your body. However, this is generally not realistic for the warmer months.
– Two-sided sticky tape or a lint roller works well at picking unattached ticks off your clothes or body. The two-sided tape could also be used to trap them as they are traveling upwards by wrapping it around your socks, boots or pants.
– Have a tick kit (or more than one) that includes a tick removal device (either fine-tipped tweezers or a tick removal tool that grasps the tick as close to the skin as possible without squeezing the body or twisting; antiseptic, a magnifying glass (they are small), small plastic bags/containers, bandaids, pencil, paper, scotch tape (this info is explained in more detail here – https://www.littlethings.com/diy-tick-kit/. CanLyme also has a tick kit with some of these items included – https://canlyme.com/product/tick-removal-kit/. AtlanTick also sells a kit – https://www.atlantick.ca/product-page/tick-kit.
Before You Come Indoors
Check your clothing for ticks. Brush yourself down, including your hair, prior to entering the house to prevent ticks from being carried into the house on clothing. Brush off any pet before entering the house.
After You Come Indoors
Placing clothes into a dryer on high heat for 15-20 minutes should effectively kill any missed ticks.
Shower/bathe soon after being outdoors. Showering within two hours of coming indoors has been shown to reduce your risk of getting Lyme disease as it may help wash off unattached ticks and it is also a good opportunity to do a tick check.
Check your entire body for ticks after being outdoors. Conduct a full body check upon return from potentially tick-infested areas, which even includes your back yard. Use a hand-held or full-length mirror to view all parts of your body. In particular, check these parts of your body and your child’s body for ticks as ticks prefer warm, moist locations:
- Under the arms
- In and around the ears
- Inside belly button
- Back of the knees
- Between the toes
- In and around the hair
- In the groin area
- Around the waist
- Under any bands, such as a bra, pants, etc.
What to Do if You Find an Attached Tick
If you find a tick attached to your skin, or on your pet, there’s no need to panic. There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a set of fine-tipped tweezers will remove a tick quite effectively. You can also remove a tick with string (including dental floss) if nothing else is available. There are good videos on YouTube for these methods.
- Use fine-tipped tweezers (or a tick tool) to grasp the tick as close to the skin’s surface as possible. Do not squeeze the body.
- Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Don’t twist or jerk the tick; this can cause the mouth-parts to break off and remain in the skin. If this happens, remove the parts with tweezers. If you are unable to remove the parts easily consider having your Doctor remove it for you or you can wait. The remaining parts will not transmit illness, but can cause sensitivity, etc.
- Never use your fingers as you will end up squeezing the tick which can result in the transmission of disease.
- After removing the tick, thoroughly clean the bite area, and your hands, with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water.
This is a great, short, video posted on YouTube by AtlanTick re tick removal – https://youtu.be/P0fH_2LRiYw. They have other good videos as well.
The federal government has a good tick removal video as well – https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/video/lyme-disease-properly-remove-tick.html.
Avoid folklore remedies such as “painting” the tick with nail polish or petroleum jelly, or using heat to make the tick detach from the skin. Also don’t spin it around with a Q-tip. Your goal is to remove the tick as quickly as possible – not waiting for it to detach. You also don’t want it to regurgitate or break off parts in your skin!
If the tick was engorged, and you don’t know how long it was attached for, you can send photos to eTick and they can provide an approximate length of time – https://www.etick.ca/. They can also tell you the type of tick. They also then record the tick on a map. You can download their app onto your phone for quick and easy use. Remember, however, that the length of time is variable for disease transmission, although the longer it was attached the greater chance of transmission, if it was carrying Lyme AND different ticks can carry different things.
Sending the tick for testing is very beneficial as many different things can be transmitted. However, the ticks are only tested for what you ask for and testing and can be quite expensive, if you go with a full panel. Testing is also not a diagnostic tool as the tick may have not transmitted anything. In Canada, I believe “Geneticks”is the only company testing ticks at this time – https://www.geneticks.ca/.
It is my opinion that tick testing should be undertaken in this province, free of charge. If you agree, please speak up.
Watch for signs of illness such as rash, fever, stiff neck, and/or other flu-like symptoms, heart issues, neurologic issues, etc., in the days and weeks following the bite, and see a health care provider if any of these develop. You may have none, or all, of the symptoms, or more, depending upon your immune system and other factors, such as what co-infections the tick was carrying. Your risk of acquiring a tick-borne illness depends on many things, including where you live, what type of tick bit you, and how long the tick was attached. If you become ill after a tick bite, see a health care provider.
Some people can apparently be asymptomatic, with symptoms not occurring until your immune system is compromised. If you suddenly start to have a variety of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, that come and go and generally are not confirmed by testing, then consider the possibility that you were bitten by a tick.
More on the Rash
You will frequently see the bull’s-eye rash as being called the rash of Lyme disease. However, an erythema migrans rash, which is the Lyme rash, can have several manifestations, with the bull’s-eye version happening infrequently. Here is a recent article about the rashes that I found quite accurate (for a change) – https://www.health.com/condition/lyme-disease/lyme-disease-rashes. Some doctors are not aware of all of the different types of rashes possible and believe that without a bull’s-eye, you do not have Lyme. They will also diagnose different Lyme rashes as cellulitis, spider bite, etc. Better education for everyone is long overdue.
Reduce Ticks in Your Yard
- Modify your landscape. Regularly remove leaf litter and clear tall grasses and brush around homes, and place wood chips or gravel between lawns and wooded areas to keep ticks away from recreational areas, and keep play areas and playground equipment away from shrubs, bushes, and other vegetation.
- Discourage deer. Removing plants that attract deer and constructing physical barriers may help discourage deer from entering your yard and bringing ticks with them.
- Plant vegetation that repels ticks. There are several good sites. This is just one of many. – http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/plants-to-grow-that-repel-ticks-and-fleas/
- Ticks can be found under ground covers and Japanese Barberry plants. There is considerable information pertaining to Japanese Barberry plants and a higher incidence of black-legged ticks. Consider bushes that are elevated from the ground so that you can rake underneath or place wood chips or gravel – https://entomologytoday.org/2017/10/04/the-5-year-plan-manage-japanese-barberry-to-keep-tick-levels-low-reduce-lyme-risk/?_scpsug=crawled_129977_c9b57e70-a91d-11e7-a302-90b11c40440d#_scpsug=crawled_129977_c9b57e70-a91d-11e7-a302-90b11c40440d.
- Do not have bird feeders close to the house. Birds can carry ticks and they can drop off anywhere. If you must feed the birds, have feeders away from your house and put wood chips or gravel around the base.
Prevent Ticks on Animals
Use tick control products to prevent family pets from bringing ticks into the home. Consult your Veterinarian and be sure to use these products according to the package instructions
Lyme disease is a complex and rarely understood disease that is multi-systemic in nature. It can present itself with a myriad of symptoms that can easily lead to misdiagnosis by the untrained professional.
What is Lyme?
Lyme Disease is a bacterial infection carried by various birds, rodents (such as the white-footed mouse), and potentially other small animals. There is some indication that mosquitos and other biting insects may also be vectors to this disease. It is passed between the animals and insects in this group when a tick latches onto an infected host and has a blood meal.
The spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi) in the infected blood enter the blood of the tick and begin another life cycle, or continue their lifecycle in the stomach of the tick. During the next phase of their life-cycle, the tick then bites a different host and possibly infects the new host with Lyme disease.
The potential symptom list is long and all of the symptoms, alone, could be the result of something else, other than the erythema migrans rash. However, if you have many, they change on a regular basis (some are cyclical or hormonal), and affect numerous systems, chances are you may have Lyme disease and/or other tick-borne diseases.
Dr. Richard Horowitz, one of the best known Lyme Literate Doctors in the world, and who has written the books “How Can I Get Better” and “Why Can’t I Get Better”, has a diagnostic form to fill out which gives you an idea whether a possible Lyme diagnosis should be pursued – https://www.eomega.org/article/is-it-lyme-disease. This questionnaire has been empirically validated with research – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590688/.
As well, in December of 2019, the following research document became available –
“The General Symptom Questionnaire-30 (GSQ-30): A Brief Measure of Multi-System Symptom Burden in Lyme Disease” – https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2019.00283/full – which is another clinical way to determine whether you may be dealing with tick borne diseases. This questionnaire may be accepted by your doctor more than the one prepared by Dr. Horowitz as it was prepared by a number of doctors in the US.
Another symptom checklist was developed by Dr. Burrascano – https://lymediseaseassociation.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/DrB_SymptomList2005Pdf.pdf.
Ticks can also carry more than one disease! Depending upon where you live, the co-infections can vary.
Here are a few co-infections that have been found in Canada:
Anaplasmosis – http://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/symptoms/
Ehrlichiosis – https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/
Babesiosis – http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/babesiosis/
Powassan Virus – http://www.cdc.gov/powassan/
Borrelia miyamotoi – http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/miyamotoi.html
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (found in dog ticks) – http://www.cdc.gov/rmsf/
Bartonella (research from Dalhousie indicates that many ticks – both blacklegged and dog/wood – are carrying Bartonella in Nova Scotia) – http://columbia-lyme.org/patients/tbd_bartonella.html
Tularemia – https://www.cdc.gov/tularemia/index.html
Other tick borne diseases are always possible as migratory birds bring more and more ticks from a number of areas.
INFORMATION YOU SHOULD HAVE FOR YOUR DOCTOR’S VISIT:
Before you head to your GP to discuss tick-borne diseases, you should be armed with some general information as the knowledge of many Doctors on ALL stages of Lyme and tick-borne diseases is still sorely lacking. First of all, if you have a variety of symptoms and believe that you have been dealing with the issue for quite some time, you should complete one, or more of the questionnaires.
A research paper was published in late 2018 which was co-authored by Dr. Vett Lloyd and Dr. Ralph Hawkins regarding a staggering number of cases being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed – “Under-Detection of Lyme Disease in Canada” – https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/6/4/125/htm.
In response to the research published by Drs. Lloyd and Hawkins, another research document was published – https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-7219-x. As is the case with most things to do with Lyme and Tick-borne diseases, there is a difference of opinion as to how many cases are being missed in Canada. However, there is agreement that cases are being missed.
You should have a copy of the Canadian Adverse Reaction Newsletter, Volume 22 – Issue 4 – October 2012 – https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/medeffect-canada/health-product-infowatch/canadian-adverse-reaction-newsletter-volume-22-issue-4-october-2012.html. This newsletter refers to test limitations. The ELISA is not 100% accurate. There have been actual laws passed in some US states requiring Doctors to advise patients that a negative ELISA does not mean that they don’t have Lyme. However, the ELISA, and then the Western Blot if the ELISA is positive or equivocal, are the blood tests undertaken in some areas of Canada at this time. In Nova Scotia, two different types of ELISA’s are now being undertaken. Health Canada recommends that Lyme be a clinical diagnosis, with testing supplemental. Doctors need to learn how to do this!
If you have the tell-tale expanding Erythema migrans (EM) rash (which is a definite sign of Lyme – no testing required), you should take a photo of the rash and note the date, the size and where you were bitten (both on body and location – if known), as it might disappear before you get to the Doctor. The better known version of the EM rash is the bull’s-eye; however, a variety of other rashes are actually more common. As well, many people do not see, or get, a rash.
You should also either have a copy of, or at least be knowledgeable about, the CDC website page regarding untreated Lyme symptoms as many Doctors still believe that Lyme is nothing more than a rash and flu-like symptoms – https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/index.html. The federal government website also has information on a variety of symptoms possible if untreated, as does the Nova Scotia website regarding Lyme – https://novascotia.ca/dhw/CDPC/lyme.asp.
For those with acute or early Lyme, the following information is helpful for both your and your medical professional – https://cep.health/clinical-products/early-lyme-disease/. Hopefully, a similar document will be prepared for early and late disseminated Lyme.
If in Nova Scotia, you should have a copy of the “Guidance for Primary Care and Emergency Medicine Providers in the Management of Lyme Disease in Nova Scotia” – https://novascotia.ca/dhw/cdpc/documents/statement_for_managing_LD.pdf. The Guidance document (formerly called the Statement for Managing Lyme Disease) also includes some general treatment guidelines and, although I don’t agree with everything it says as it follows the IDSA guidelines, it should get your Doctor started in the right direction. Along with this document, you should have an actual copy of the full IDSA Guidelines document from 2020, but specifically, you should have a copy of the Disclaimer under the Notes section – https://www.idsociety.org/practice-guideline/lyme-disease/. They are guidelines only!
Also helpful, if in Nova Scotia, is a copy of the Department of Health & Wellness, Communicable Disease Prevention and Control document that includes a Nova Scotia risk map that shows all of Nova Scotia at risk – https://novascotia.ca/dhw/CDPC/lyme.asp. There is also a Nova Scotia Tick Borne Diseases Response Plan which mentions possible co-infections – https://novascotia.ca/dhw/cdpc/documents/Tick-Borne-Disease-Response-Plan.pdf, but doesn’t include all that have been found in the province by researchers at Dalhousie University. Regarding the Dalhousie research on ticks, the following is a presentation given by Dalhousie research students at a Lyme Conference held in 2018 in Halifax regarding the “Bacteria Prevalence of I. Scapularis and D. Variabilis in NS” – https://youtu.be/RDVE3C4QAIA
You should print off a copy, or at least have knowledge, of “Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease” – http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1586/14787210.2014.940900. This is another standard of care guideline for treating Lyme and other tick-borne illnesses which was released by the International Lyme & Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) in July of 2014.
It is also important to know that although it has not been determined that dog(wood) ticks can carry Lyme disease, they have been found to be carrying other things in Nova Scotia. There was a research group at Dalhousie University that found Rickettsia, Bartonella, Tularemia, etc. More about that is included in the link to the presentation made by research students at Dalhousie.
You might want to also print off, or at least review before your appointment, the Federal Framework on Lyme Disease – https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/publications/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease-canada-federal-framework/lyme-disease-canada-federal-framework-eng.pdf .
What would also be helpful is information on possible co-infections. The best spot I have found so far is IDEXX Laboratories which is for pet testing. At least it gives you an idea of some co-infections that are in your area. However, not every Veterinarian uses this Lab so it is only a sampling and doesn’t include tests for everything that could be carried by ticks – http://www.petdiseasereport.com/content/prevmap.aspx.
A few links and information that might be helpful to those in Newfoundland:
Jean Hewson is the CanLyme Representative for Newfoundland/Labrador – Jean Hewson
Email: email@example.com Tele is 709-722-2863
NEW BRUNSWICK INFO:
There are a number of CanLyme contacts available in New Brunswick – https://canlyme.com/about/contact/
Mount Allison University, with the support of the Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation, has established a Lyme disease research node led by Dr. Vett Lloyd – https://www.mta.ca/Community/Research_and_creative/Tick_and_Lyme_disease_research/Tick___Lyme_disease_research/.
LymeNB is the registered business name for the incorporated not-for-profit New Brunswick Lyme Disease Association Inc., founded in 2016 and granted charitable status in 2018. Its purpose is preventing tick-borne illnesses, while supporting and being a voice for those affected. Membership is open, at no cost, to anyone touched by Lyme disease. Its members come from all over the province and have nearly tripled since LymeNB was incorporated. Membership application forms to join LymeNB are available on its website (www.lymenb.ca) as is contact information for its President, Janet Higgins and the facilitators for its two support groups, one in the Greater Moncton Area (Cathie Smith) and the other in the Greater Fredericton Area (Louise Billings).
LymeNB has a Facebook page (www.facebook.com/lymenb.ca), as well as a closed virtual support group site (www.facebook.com/lymechatnb.) LymeNB offers seminars and conferences on Lyme disease to targeted groups as well as to the general public and carries out various activities to raise awareness about Lyme disease and co-infections and to provide supportive healthcare services to its members. If you wish to reach LymeNB, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org
There is a Facebook page – “Tick Talk NB – Lyme Disease and other tick borne illnesses” – https://www.facebook.com/TickTalkNB/.
An excellent series was recently done by CBC Information Morning, Moncton called “A Matter of Lyme”: Vett Lloyd – Lyme Disease – http://www.cbc.ca/player/play/2696340214. There was also an interview with a Lyme sufferer (Natasha Joy Snowden), her Naturopath (Dr. Nicholas Anhorm) and her Doctor (Dr. Richard Dubocq of Albion, Maine).
– http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/ocmoh/cdc/content/vectorborne_andzoonotic/lyme.html (basically included as it mentions that ticks can be anywhere in New Brunswick and it includes some possible symptoms of untreated Lyme disease)
The CanLyme contact person in PEI is Chris Robinson, Email: email@example.com , Tele 902-628-9831
Very little general info about Lyme in PEI was found on-line, but this is a start:
– From a Feb. 2007 Newsletter of the Diagnostic Services Laboratory, Atlantic Veterinary College, “The Presence of Ixodes scapularis ticks and the Potential for Lyme Disease on Prince Edward Island” – http://files.upei.ca/avc/diagnosticservices/newsletters/avcds_feb2007_vol1-01.pdf
Alternative testing is available but the results are generally not accepted by non “Lyme Literate” Doctors so the information is more for your own peace of mind or that of your LLMD, Naturopath, or other alternative/complementary health care provider. Testing is not cheap and is probably going to be out-of-pocket. You may want to consider reviewing the symptom lists for other tick-borne diseases that are noted earlier in this document so that you can get an idea of what co-infections you might have. You can also see if testing for any of them is available via the mainstream medical field. Co-infections are becoming more and more common and can hinder treatment so trying to find out what you have in that regard is just as important, if not more so, than Lyme.
The three main private Labs that I am aware of are:
The following would be useful information to have if you are going to go the route of private testing:
There is a lot of research going on around the world. Unfortunately, it doesn’t seem to be getting shared so there are now several spots where Lyme research is being recorded. One is a Facebook page that I started in an effort to keep track of up and coming research. I obviously don’t see it all but it’s a starting point – Research Information for Tick Borne Diseases (Lyme, Babesiosis, etc.) – https://www.facebook.com/groups/226575537496968/
There are at least two research groups in Canada working on Lyme and Tick-borne diseases. They are the Canadian Lyme Consortium – http://www.clymec.ca/ and the Canadian Lyme Disease Research Network – https://www.clydrn.ca/. Unfortunately, the Canadian Lyme Disease Research Network is controversial in the Lyme world. This group consists of many doctors/researchers in Canada that are generally known as being IDSA followers and non-believers in “Chronic” Lyme. They may end up hurting us more than helping us. Time will tell.
There is considerable research being undertaken at a variety of institutions in the US. This is one group that is hoping to change the dialogue about Lyme and Tick-borne diseases – https://www.stand4lyme.org/. Stanford University scientists are collaborating with scientists at other leading institutions, including Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Tulane and Duke.
The following are some research documents that I refer to frequently:
– An interesting research document worth a read – “Co-Infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception” – http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0004539
– CMAJ – “The emergence of Lyme disease in Canada” – www.cmaj.ca/content/180/12/1221.full.
– Lyme and associated tick-borne diseases: global challenges in the context of a public health threat – www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042490/pdf/fcimb-04-00074.pdf.
– Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease – www.journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0116767.
– Lyme Arthritis: An Emerging Clinical Problem in Nova Scotia, Canada – http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.38498/full
The following websites are reasonably good sources of information. There is a conflicting school of thought on Lyme disease and co-infections so always do your homework! I try to post information from both sides so that you can make an informed decision.
Public Health Agency of Canada – Lyme Disease – www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/lyme-eng.php.
Public Health Agency of Canada Lyme Disease Fact Sheet – www.phac.gc.ca/id-mi/lyme-fs-eng.php
Government of Canada – Lyme disease – www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/disease-maladie/lyme-eng.php.
The Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation – www.canlyme.net. CanLyme also has a YouTube Channel with videos from the Federal Framework on Lyme Disease Conference held in Ottawa in May of 2016. Worth checking out.
The Canadian Lyme Science Alliance – http://www.lymesciencealliance.org/.
Canadian Lyme Disease Research Network – https://www.clydrn.ca/
International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) – www.ilads.org.
University of Rhode Island TickEncounter Resource Center – http://www.tickencounter.org/.
Lyme Disease in Canada – A Federal Framework – https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease-canada-federal-framework.html.
The following articles/interviews are also good sources of information. There are many more as well. These are just a sampling:
– Joan Baxter has done at least three good articles on the issue for the Halifax Examiner:
June 5, 2022 The clock is ticking, but Nova Scotia is still not acting on ticks and Lyme disease. The province has by far the highest per capita incidence of Lyme in the country but ‘Lyme Disease Awareness Month’ came and went without much awareness at all. https://www.halifaxexaminer.ca/province-house/the-clock-is-ticking-but-nova-scotia-is-still-not-acting-on-ticks-and-lyme-disease/
July 6, 2021 A plague of ticks, tick-borne diseases, and polit-ticks. Part 2: What can be done to better manage and minimize the risks of tick-borne diseases in Nova Scotia? https://www.halifaxexaminer.ca/featured/a-plague-of-ticks-tick-borne-diseases-and-poli-ticks-2/
July 5, 2021 A plague of ticks, tick-borne diseases, and polit-ticks. Part 1: Tick populations in Nova Scotia are exploding largely because of climate change and the province is Canada’s “hot spot” for Lyme disease. So, how is the province monitoring and managing tick-borne diseases and health risks? https://www.halifaxexaminer.ca/featured/a-plague-of-ticks-tick-borne-diseases-and-poli-ticks/
– The Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation (CanLyme) has started a very informative podcast – https://www.lookingatlyme.ca/
– This is an excellent documentary prepared for the Lunenburg Doc Fest – https://youtu.be/Hy2G94hcSOI. It really gives you some idea what people go through to get diagnosed and treated. It also should concern you that this is a known endemic area. What happens in areas where even less is known?
– With Justin Bieber’s announcement that he is dealing with Lyme disease, there has been considerable press. Too much to link here (especially since some links are not working because there are already too many), however, just Google “Justin Bieber Lyme” and tons will come up. Most are pretty good articles.
– A great interview with Janet Sperling, Board Member of the Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation (CanLyme) – “What’s driving the explosion in Lyme disease in Canada” – https://thebigstorypodcast.ca/2020/02/10/lyme-disease/
– An article in The Chronicle Herald regarding the CDC’s recent inclusion of an acknowledgement that there is potential for Mother to fetus transmission of Lyme – https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/news/provincial/us-health-agency-acknowledges-lyme-disease-mother-to-fetus-transmission-409641/
– “Are ticks still dangerous in the winter?” – https://cottagelife.com/outdoors/are-ticks-still-dangerous-in-the-winter/. In brief, yes!
– “As ticks continue to spread in Maine, here’s what to expect in the coming years” https://bangordailynews.com/2019/12/29/act-out/as-ticks-continue-to-spread-in-maine-heres-what-to-expect-in-the-coming-years/. Although not specific to the Atlantic provinces, it’s an interesting read.
– “Lyme Disease Conference Held in Bridgewater” – https://beta.ctvnews.ca/local/atlantic/2019/11/17/1_4689797.html?fbclid=IwAR2r3MCEurft3dJyKBNp0DiJDGxBb8LSvY_rh21_Am0uuBqfUjI26p7xZSk
– “The Lyme Wars: Major Organizations Aren’t Playing Nicely Together”- https://www.forbes.com/…/the-lyme-wars-major-organizations…/
– “The Lyme Wars, Part 2: Which Way Should We Treat?” – https://www.forbes.com/sites/judystone/2019/08/03/the-lyme-wars-part-2-which-way-should-we-treat/
– “Lyme and Reason” – A series of segments on Lyme and Tick-borne diseases. Very informative. Unfortunately, they are not all in one place. Some are on YouTube, some are on the Fox5NY website. A couple are here on YouTube – https://youtu.be/40EWjpREeXY. Others worth a search.
– Andrew Rankin, a journalist with The Chronicle Herald, has written several articles recently about Lyme, Tick-borne diseases and ticks. Worth checking out. Dr. Robert Strang, Nova Scotia’s Chief Medical Officer, has actually written a rebuttal to some of the “misinformation”. Further “Letters to the Editor” were written responding to Dr. Strang’s article. All worth a read. Unfortunately, a lot of the articles that were written about Lyme before The Chronicle Herald updated their equipment is no longer available on-line.
– Fox5 NY has done a number of other excellent interviews on the issue of Lyme and Tick Borne Diseases – http://www.fox5ny.com/lyme-disease. Some of the “Lyme and Reason” segments are located here.
– An interview with Dr. Alfred Miller – NightSide – A New Perspective on Lyme Disease – https://player.fm/series/nightside-with-dan-rea-1511437/nightside-a-new-perspective-on-lyme-disease.
– Doctor’s Review – “Lyme disease: past, present and future” – http://doctorsreview.com/history/lyme-disease-past-present-and-future/
– “The peril of chronic Lyme disease” by Mary Beth Pfeiffer – http://www.newsday.com/opinion/commentary/the-peril-of-chronic-lyme-disease-1.13775806.
– CDC advises you might need multiple Lyme disease tests after a tick bite – http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/cdc-advises-multiple-lyme-disease-tests-tick-bite-48364357.
– Lyme Disease: Inside America’s Mysterious Epidemic – http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/lyme-disease-inside-americas-mysterious-epidemic-w487776.
– Lyme disease research, funding falling behind in Canada – http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/opinion-seiff-lyme-disease-1.4165151
– Press Conference: Improving the Lyme Disease Framework – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LkglyEVBw8
– Lyme and Reason: Dr. Steven Phillips Interview, Fox5NY – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy0ViOX7xNk&feature=share
– Does Chronic Lyme Disease Exist – http://www.contagionlive.com/videos/does-chronic-lyme-disease-exist
– Lyme Disease: Experts Weigh in on the Controversies – http://www.americanveterinarian.com/journals/amvet/2017/february2017/lyme-disease-experts-weigh-in-on-the-controversies
– An excellent video prepared by the Stand4Lyme Foundation. Ten of the world’s top scientists from leading institutions discuss their scientific insights on the problems and potential solutions for Lyme disease. – “Lyme in the 21st Century” – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYhY7tquUOo.
– A fairly high percentage of dog ticks in Nova Scotia could carry Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever – http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/lyme-disease-deer-ticks-may-not-be-the-only-ones-we-have-to-worry-about-1.3060683
– A comparison chart of possible symptoms of co-infections – http://www.lyme-symptoms.com/LymeCoinfectionChart.html
– An excellent interview with Dr. Neil Spector with regard to his thoughts on Lyme after his own journey- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dana-parish/lyme-the-infectious-disea_b_9243460.html. Unfortunately, Dr. Spector passed away in June, 2020, of complications due to Epstein-Barr virus. We truly lost a hero. If you haven’t read his book, you should. It’s very insightful. All doctors should read it, as well as patients.
– CBC – Ticked Off: The Mystery of Lyme Disease – http://www.cbc.ca/natureofthings/episodes/ticked-off-the-mystery-of-lyme-disease. Lots of extra info on the site as well, including interviews with Doctors, etc. This TV show was made into a very informative DVD worth watching as well.
– The Daily Climate – “Lyme disease surges north, and Canada moves out of denial” – www.dailyclimate.org/tdc-newsroom/2014/09/canada-lyme-disease-spreads. The person that wrote this, Marianne Lavelle, also wrote several other articles around the same time that are worthy of reading.
– MacLean’s – “Health Canada’s new Lyme disease plan: You Act, We’ll Watch” – http://www.macleans.ca/society/health/health-canadas-new-lyme-disease-plan-you-act-well-watch/
There are lots of different Facebook Pages and Groups on Lyme Disease but the following one was started to try and track the issue in Nova Scotia – “Lyme Disease in Nova Scotia & the Atlantic Provinces” or visit: www.facebook.com/pages/Lyme-Disease-In-Nova-Scotia/217895438247422. There is also a “Nova Scotia Lyme Disease Registry” which was started in an effort to have a place where those dealing with Lyme disease in Nova Scotia could be counted. The page can be found at www.facebook.com/groups/253938431456967/.
There is also a “Lyme Support Group – Atlantic Provinces” Facebook group for those unable to attend a support group in person or just want the ease of being able to ask questions of people that understand. Just ask to join. I will reach out and ask some basic questions before adding you.
Many pages dedicated to Lyme and other tick borne diseases. Donna Lugar’s is http://www.pinterest.com/donnalugar/lyme-disease-other-vector-borne-diseases-bartonell/.
FILM – “UNDER OUR SKIN”
I have purchased a copy of the award-winning documentary about Lyme disease called “Under our Skin” (www.underourskin.com), including public performance rights. If you wish to borrow the film for a group viewing, please contact me at 902-835-5643 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
FILM – “TICKED OFF: THE MYSTERY OF LYME DISEASE”
I have also purchased a copy of “Ticked Off: The Mystery of Lyme Disease”. There are two discs with the second disc including extended Lyme Expert Interviews. Disc one includes the show (52 minutes – different than the one shown on the Nature of Things), Lyme Expert Interviews and Lyme Patient Testimonials. This is available for personal and public viewing as performance rights were purchased. A version of this film is also available for viewing at www.cbc.ca/natureofthings/episodes/ticked-off-the-mystery-of-lyme-disease but it is the TV version not the DVD version. The DVD version is much better.
FILM – “UNDER OUR SKIN 2 – EMERGENCE”
I have purchased a copy of “Under Our Skin 2 – Emergence”. If you wish to borrow the film to view or for a group viewing, please contact me at 902-835-5643 or email@example.com.
LYME SUPPORT GROUPS IN NOVA SCOTIA
A Lyme Support Group has met in Bedford since early 2014. Since COVID, monthly Lyme Support Group meetings have been occurring on the second Tuesday of the month at noon, via Zoom. You can contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org, 902-718-9000, to be included in an email group on any upcoming meetings/initiatives. Since the Zoom meetings are doing well and we can have people from all over the province attend, we will continue to do this even when in person meetings can happen again.
There is a new Lyme Support Group in the Pictou area called the Pictou County Lyme Support Group which were meeting on the second Tuesday of every month at 7 pm in the Little Harbour Community Hall. They have a Facebook page called “Pictou County Lyme Support Group” – https://www.facebook.com/groups/2392862330953151/. I’m not sure if they have been meeting virtually during COVID, but I don’t think so.
A Lyme Support Group had also been started in the Bridgewater area; however, the contact person has stepped down and a replacement has not yet been found. If interested in running a support group in that area you can reach out to me at email@example.com.
There is talk about starting a Lyme Support Group in the Annapolis Royal area. I will keep you posted as I hear more.
There are many other areas throughout the province that could use Lyme Support Groups, especially for those not on social media. Anyone interested in starting one can contact me for suggestions.
For those on social media, there are lots of Facebook pages/groups that have started up. Some are very helpful. Others not so much. Be careful.
LYME SUPPORT GROUPS IN NEW BRUNSWICK
LymeNB is the registered business name for the incorporated not-for-profit New Brunswick Lyme Disease Association Inc., founded in 2016 and granted charitable status in 2018. Its purpose is preventing tick-borne illnesses, while supporting and being a voice for those affected. Membership is open at no cost to anyone touched by Lyme Disease. Its members come from all over the province and have nearly tripled since LymeNB was incorporated. Membership application forms to join LymeNB are available on its website (www.lymenb.ca) as is contact information for its President, Janet Higgins and the facilitators for its two support groups, one in the Greater Moncton Area (Cathie Smith) and the other in the Greater Fredericton Area (Louise Billings). Contact info on the LymeNB website.
LymeNB has a Facebook page (www.facebook.com/lymenb.ca) as well as a closed virtual support group site (www.facebook.com/lymechatnb.) LymeNB offers seminars and conferences on Lyme Disease to targeted groups as well as to the general public and carries out various activities to raise awareness about Lyme disease and co-infections and to provide supportive healthcare services to its members.
If you wish to reach LymeNB, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org.
HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
The following contact information is for Doctors, Naturopaths, Traditional Chinese Medicine Doctors, and Herbalists that some Support Group Members are using. This list in no way implies that I have vetted them all and am recommending their services. They are just for your information and research. They are in no particular order.
– Dr. Bryan Rade is a Naturopath at East Coast Naturopathic in Bedford. He describes himself as being fairly knowledgeable about tick borne diseases. Some have had good results with him – https://www.eastcoastnaturopathic.com/
– Dr. Sandra Murphy, a Naturopath in Halifax – http://nurturetherapeutics.ca.
– Dr. Ben Connelly, a Naturopath in Tantallon, NS – http://cornerstonenaturopathic.ca/
– Dr. Lois Hare, ND, Valley Naturopathic in Berwick – http://nsand.ca/members/dr-lois-hare-nd-berwick/
– Dr. Teresa Donovan, Naturopath, Root Cause Health & Wellness Clinic. Antigonish – https://oceanviewwellness.ca/our-team/teresa-donovan/
– Dr. Cheryl Karthaus, ND, East Coast Naturopathic, Bedford – https://eastcoastnaturopathic.com/dr-cheryl-karthaus-nd
– Dr. Rosalyn Hayman, ND, http://halifaxnaturopathic.ca/en/portfolio_page/dr-rosalyn-hayman-nd/
– Dr. Suzanne Coady, South Shore Wellness, Bridgewater, https://southshorewellness.janeapp.com/locations/bridgewater/book
– Dr. Jessie Short, Mahone Bay – https://drjessieshort.com/. Newer to Lyme, but has growing experience
– Dr. Adrienne Wood, Windsor, https://www.drwoodnd.com/. Newer to Lyme, but has growing experience
– Dr. Fronie LeRoy, OMD PHD at the Baidu Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinic at 1242 Bedford Highway (902-444-4724 – www.baidutcm.ca) has started learning more about Lyme disease and co-infections. Dr. LeRoy does TCM and Acupuncture. She is presently treating some people with Lyme and Tick-borne diseases.
– Terry Sheehy of Mother Nature’s Natural Therapy – https://www.mothernaturesnaturaltherapy.com, has taken an interest in all things Lyme (and co-infections) and utilizes a variety of treatments.
– Dr. Claudia Schmiemann, Holistic Health Centre, Lunenburg, NS – https://holistic-health.care/.
– Dr. Christine Sauer – https://docchristine.com/.
– Dr. Sophie Michaud – in Quebec – https://i-liv.ca/.
– There are Medical Herbalists in Nova Scotia that apparently have treatments for Lyme/tick borne diseases – http://herbalns.org/
There has been recent information to suggest that Naturopaths across Canada can no longer work with patients outside their province. However, this has not yet been confirmed. Therefore, the following are a few that people have utilized in the past.
– Dr. Risk, a Naturopath in Calgary. She will work with you over the phone and/or via Skype. Her website is www.dr-risk.com. Her phone number is 403-879-1686. You can email her via her website. There is a YouTube video with Dr. Risk that you may be interested in checking out.
– Dr. Chan, a Naturopath in Richmond, BC (BC Naturopaths are able to prescribe antibiotics) – http://pannaturopathic.com/ He was interviewed in the CBC Nature of Things show about Lyme.
– Dr. Julie Moore, a Naturopath in Vancouver – http://www.sageclinic.com/doctor/dr-julie-moore-nd/. I was given this Naturopath’s name by Jim Wilson, President, Canadian Lyme Disease Association (CanLyme). Apparently he has been hearing good things about her and, as noted for Dr. Chan, BC Naturopaths can prescribe antibiotics.
– Dr. Nicholas Anhorn is a Naturopath in Moncton – http://monctonnaturopathic.com/practitioners/dr-anhorn/. He is a member of ILADS.
– Dr. Melissa Blake, a Naturopath that practices out of Dieppe, NB and Amherst, NS. Her practice is “The Pear Tree Naturopathic Clinic” – www.thepeartreeclinic.com.
– Lisa Pelkey, FNP, in Bangor, Maine, has taken over many of Dr. Dubocq’s patients. I believe she is at Penobscot Healing Arts. Unfortunately Dr. Richard Dubocq in Albion, Maine who was seeing quite a few Canadian Lyme patients retired as of June, 2021. He was interviewed by CBC Information Morning, Moncton, for a series they did on Lyme – http://www.cbc.ca/player/play/2696239815.
– Dr. Ralph Hawkins is one of a very short list of Canadian “Lyme Literate” Doctors that was actively treating Lyme. However, he recently announced that he has put his practice on hold while dealing with a health emergency. He is located in Calgary. Dr. Hawkins has spoken out quite a bit about the issue – http://globalnews.ca/news/2830195/calgary-doctor-speaks-out-against-one-size-fits-all-treatment-for-lyme-disease/.
There are various alternative treatments that people have been using and recommend. Of course, everyone is different so you have to do your own research. Some of these would be considered quite “out there” and many require additional research if you are interested as some can interfere with other treatments. This is just food for thought.
Dietary Changes – It is generally recommended to eat as “clean” as possible. No processed foods. Limit or remove sugar. No artificial sweeteners. Gluten may become an issue. Limit or remove dairy. Red meat may cause gastrointestinal issues for some. Caffeine and alcohol should be avoided. www.drrajpatel.net/index.php/lyme-m/lymediet-m
Many, including myself, add a lot of immune boosting things to smoothies, such as Hemp hearts (https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-health-benefits-of-hemp-seeds), Chia seeds, Flax seeds, blueberries, etc. Lots of great advice out there on what to add to your diet to boost your immunity to help rid yourself of illness.
Adding turmeric or cumin to your diet – http://www.mnn.com/food/healthy-eating/stories/the-amazing-health-benefits-of-turmeric
Drinking warm lemon water first thing in morning – http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/11-benefits-lemon-water-you-didnt-know-about.html
Oil Pulling – I have personally been doing this for over five years. Love it! – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131773/
Apple Cider Vinegar – A tablespoon in a glass of water before meals – This one was suggested to me by a Naturopath to aid digestion. – http://www.cosmopolitan.com/health-fitness/a48500/apple-cider-vinegar-benefits/.
Garlic – Rumor has it that ticks don’t like the smell of garlic and it has actually been used to spray on the perimeters of lawns in an effort to keep them off. I have been told by some that eat regular garlic that they have never found a tick on themselves, even when they spend a considerable amount of time outdoors. Hmmm – “Garlic Can Fight Chronic Infections” – http://healthsciences.ku.dk/news/2017/11/garlic/
Vitamin A Supplementation – “Vitamin A Deficiency Exacerbates Murine Lyme Arthritis” – https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/174/4/747/812942
Tinidazole/Clarithromycin – This combo has apparently been used by some with great success. You need a prescription. Tinidazole, 500mg –twice daily; Clarithromycin, 500mg-twice daily.
Take one of each TOGETHER at least 30 days or 60 days if necessary. (This info was received from someone using it. I have no personal knowledge.)
Colloidal Silver – http://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/never-consume-colloidal-silver/ and, for a different opinion https://nccih.nih.gov/health/silver
Acupuncture & Traditional Chinese Medicine – http://www.kaplanclinic.com/videos/chinese-medicine-gu-syndrome-lyme-disease/.
Rife machine – https://www.cancertutor.com/lymedisease/
Low dose immunotheraphy (LDI) – http://www.treatlyme.net/treat-lyme-book/ldi-bring-on-the-regulators/.
Cowden Protocol – Lots of information available on this protocol. This is just one of many – http://www.lyme-disease-research-database.com/lyme_disease_blog_files/tag-cowden-protocol.html.
Buhner Protocol – http://buhnerhealinglyme.com/.
Grounding/Earthing – https://wellnessmama.com/5600/earthing-grounding/
The WIM HOF Method – https://www.wimhofmethod.com/
Thymus tapping – http://www.balancedhealthclinic.co.uk/articles/19-the-thymus-thump. I was told about this last week. The person who told me about it suggested that you tap/thump counter-clockwise around the Thymus and then clockwise. They noted that it can stop a cold in its tracks if you do it just as you are starting to feel symptoms coming on. It actually worked for me a couple of days ago.
WAVE 1 – At least two NS Lyme Support Group people now have the WAVE 1 from FreMedica – https://fremedica.com/product/wave-1/. Both have seen some minor improvements, especially with sleep.
There are many more things out there that people have tried. Something that works for one, may not work for another. Lyme and tick-borne diseases seems to be a very individualized illness.
LAST, BUT NOT LEAST
As mentioned, I have a few different places where I post info on Lyme disease and co-infections:
– I started this blog on WordPress called “Shining the Lyme Light’.
– A facebook page – www.facebook.com/pages/Lyme-Disease-in-Nova-Scotia-the-Atlantic-Provinces/217895438247422. This is an open group.
– A private, closed, “Lyme Support Group – Atlantic Provinces” Facebook group – https://www.facebook.com/groups/553427674708798/.
– A facebook group for Research Info – www.facebook.com/groups/226575537496968.
– A facebook group for non Maritime province related info – Tick/Vector Borne Disease (Lyme, Bartonella, etc.) Sufferers Unite – www.facebook.com/groups/261243560639881/.
I also have a Facebook group where people can speak up and be counted called “Nova Scotia Lyme Disease Registry – https://www.facebook.com/groups/253938431456967/. It’s a closed group but if you, or a family member are dealing with Lyme and/or co-infections, would like to be “counted” please ask to join.
As an FYI, I also have a Pinterest page dedicated to Lyme disease and utilize Twitter and LinkedIn. As another FYI, there is a Lyme Support Group on LinkedIn. I also utilize Tumblr, Instagram and WordPress to raise awareness.
I have some resource information that I would be willing to loan out if anyone is interested. Along with the DVD’s mentioned above, I also have several books on Lyme. The first one that I ever read was “Ending Denial – The Lyme Disease Epidemic, A Canadian Public Health Disaster”. The one that I now call my Lyme “Bible” is “Conquering Lyme Disease” by doctors at the Columbia University Medical Centre. I also have “Healing Lyme Disease Coinfections” by Stephen Buhner; Dr. Horowitz’s books “Why Can’t I Get Better” “”How Can I Get Better”, and Connie Strasheim’s book “New Paradigms in Lyme Disease Treatment”. I finally read “Cure Unknown” by Pamela Weintraub and “The Widening Circle” by Polly Murray. Both very interesting and informative books. Two that I have recently purchased, and would highly recommend, are: “Chronic” by Steven Phillips, MD and Dana Parish; and “Lyme Disease, Ticks and You” by Shelley Ball, PhD. Dr. Ben Boucher, the doctor that treated me back in 2011-2013 and closed his practice also wrote a “book” that came out in April of 2021. I say “book” as it is only about 50 pages long so it’s more like a paper. You can get an audio version on Amazon. I have many others as well! I will loan them out so you can check to see if you would be interested in buying.
COMMON LYME DISEASE ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS
AMMI – Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada
Abx – antibiotics
Bb – Borrelia burgdorferi – a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia.
Babs – Babesiosis/Babesia – malaria-like protozoans that parasitize and reproduce within mammalian red blood cells.
Bart – Bartonella – Bartonellosis – an infectious disease produced by bacteria of the genus Bartonella. Bartonella species cause diseases such as Carrión’s disease, trench fever, cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, chronic lymphadenopathy, and neurological disorders
Bell’s palsy – loss of muscle tone or droop on one or both sides of the face
CACMID – Canadian Association for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CPHO – Chief Public Health Officer
CanLyme – Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation
Co-Infections – Some ticks carry pathogens along with, or instead of, Lyme, that can cause human disease, including Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi, Powassan virus, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis, Bartonella, and many others.
EM – Erythema Migrans or “bull’s eye” rash.
ELISA – Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay, a rapid immunochemical test that involves an enzyme used for measuring a wide variety of tests of body fluids
Herx – Jarisch-Herxheimer or Herxheimer reaction – an increase in symptoms of a spirochetal disease occurring in some persons when treatment is started
ID – Infectious Disease
IgE – Immunoglobulin E – a type of antibody which is associated mainly with allergic reactions
IgG – Immunoglobulin G – a type of antibody which is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections
IgM – Immunoglobulin M – a type of antibody which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection
IV – Intravenous
LD – Lyme disease – an acute inflammatory disease that is caused by a spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) transmitted by ticks (and possibly other vectors, research ongoing).
IDSA – Infectious Disease Society of America
ILADS – International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society
LLMD/LLND – Lyme Literate Medical Doctor/Lyme Literate Naturopathic Doctor
Late Stage (better known as “Chronic”) Lyme – Untreated, or undertreated, Lyme disease, weeks, months or years after tick bite
Lyme carditis – heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat
NP – Nurse Practitioner
Neuro – neurology, neurological
PHAC – Public Health Agency of Canada
PHC – Public Health Canada
PTLDS – Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome – a CDC reference to symptoms experienced after treatment
RX – prescription
RMSF – Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
SX – symptom
TBD – Tick Borne Disease
TBI – Tick Borne Illness
WB – Western Blot – https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/diagnosistesting/labtest/twostep/westernblot/index.html
I hope this was helpful. Feel free to provide me with any additional information you think should be included.
I apologize that because there are so many links, not all of them are “live”. Just copy and paste them into your browser. That should work.